National Service Scheme (NSS)
Market Scan Plan India
Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM)
National Service Scheme (NSS)
National Service Scheme (NSS) launched in the Mahatma Gandhi’s Birth Centenary Year 1969, is a flagship Programme of the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports, Government of India. NSS is a Student Youth personality development programme through community services.
NSS which was a Centrally Sponsored Scheme since its inception, was declared a Central Sector Scheme in the year 2016-17
NSS which started with 40000 volunteers in 1969 has reached to over 35.5 lakhs i.e about 90-fold increase. Its coverage as on March 31, 2017 is as under.
|1||States & UTs||36|
|5||Sr. Secondary Schools||12483|
The target is to increase the enrolment of volunteers under NSS to 40 lakhs by 2020.
Evaluation studies of NSS have been undertaken periodically since the introduction of the scheme. The first evaluation of NSS was done by 4 TORCs in the year 1986-87 covering the institutions under their jurisdiction. A decade later, Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA) in the year 1996-97 evaluated the scheme as an external agency. The last evaluation of NSS was undertaken in 2006 by Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS). After a decade of that evaluation the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports has desired evaluation of National Service Scheme (NSS). The agencies empanelled with NITI Aayog were asked to submit the proposals. Invision Communications & Research Pvt. Ltd has been awarded the study through competitive bidding.
For this evaluation, the coverage is 6 States: one each from six regions namely North, South, East, West, Central and North-Eastern. In each state, the coverage is Directors of respective Regional Centres, State NSS Officers, Program Coordinators of Universities (2) and +2 councils (1). Further, in each state minimum four (4) colleges and two (2) senior secondary schools have been selected for detailed investigations. In each of these colleges and senior secondary schools, program officers of NSS Units and volunteers have been interviewed.
The methodology adopted for evaluation has been a judicious combination of Primary and Secondary research. The Primary Research entailed interactions with Officials of the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Directorate of NSS, Secretary In-charge of NSS in states, Regional Directors, State NSS Officers, Director-ETIs, Program Co-ordinators at University, +2 Council level and interview at NSS Unit level. The Secondary Research involved Review of Literature on NSS Evaluations, perusal of records and registered maintained at University, +2 Council level and NSS Unit level. Flow of funds from Centre to NSS units.
Construction of Hostels for OBC Boys and Girls
Students belonging to Other Backward Classes (OBC) specifically from rural areas discontinue their studies because of lack of secondary schools and colleges nearby. If these students wish to pursue education at educational institutions, they face the problem of non-availability of hostel facilities. To enable them to pursue secondary and higher education, the Centrally-sponsored Scheme for Construction of Hostels for OBC Boys and Girls was initiated in 1998-99 (revised in 2014-15) with a view to providing hostel facilities to students belonging to OBCs. The Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment desired an evaluation of the scheme, and Invision Communications & Research was awarded the study through open competitive bidding.
COVERAGE & METHODOLOGY:
The study covered 7 states i.e. Assam Chhattisgarh, Manipur, Odisha, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand.
The methodology used is a judicious combination of
- Secondary Research through review of records of OBC Hostel Scheme.
- Primary Research through visit to Hostels in the study states and conducting
Facility Survey of Hostel Buildings and premises
- In-depth Interviews with Hostel Warden & Inmates
- Perusal of Records.
The study tools used in the study are:
- Observational Checklist for Facility Survey of functional hostels
- Questionnaire for Feedback from Hostel Warden in functional hostels
- Questionnaire for Feedback from Hostel Inmates in functional hostels
- Checklist for Hostel Constructed but non Functional
- Checklist for Hostel under Construction
- Checklist – Where the construction has not yet started
Market Intelligence Study on Availability and Demand of Livelihood Opportunities for Youth
Saksham, launched in 2010, is a Plan India initiative to enable youth in the age group of 18 -35 years from urban disadvantaged areas to get a job or be self-employed by giving them the skills through training. Youth are being provided training on work-place and English communication, basic computer and internet, life skills and financial literacy. Over 5500 youth have already been provided training with 75% of them are either being placed in decent jobs or are self-employed.
Invision Communications & Research Pvt. Ltd. has undertaken “Market Intelligence Study on Availability and Demand of livelihood Opportunity for Youth” for ALAMB / Plan India.
The coverage of the study is NCR of Delhi with special focus on 5 areas of Plan India intervention as under:
|1||Uttamnagar, Dwarka and Mohangarden|
|2||Mangolpuri and Sultanpuri|
|3||Rangpuri Pahari and Mahipalpur|
|4||Badarpur and MadanpurKhadar|
Consistent with the scope of work and objectives of the study the target respondentidentified are:
- Youth (Male & Female) Satisfying the following inclusion criteria
- Age group of
- 18-29 years for salaried job
- 18-35 years for self-employment
- Qualification – Minimum Education Secondary level (10th pass)
- Age group of
- Community Influencers including NGOs/ SHGs
- Employers / Businesses/ Industries
The methodology adopted in the study is a judicious combination of Primary & Secondary Research.
The sample covered in the study is as under:
|Sr. No||Locality/ Area||Youth Male||Youth Female||Key informants|
|4||Rangpuri Pahari/ Mahipalpur||35||35||10|
|5||Mohangarden/ Uttamnagar/ Dwarka||34||33||10|
The sample of Employers / Employees covered from different businesses and stores across Delhi is 32. The overall sample covered is 408.
“Let’s ensure that no girl or women becomes the victim of the plague of patriarchal age old beliefs & box of social taboos- by making menstrual hygiene education compulsory in schools & women’s social spaces.”
As I navigate my way through the substance of the everyday chores, I become a specimen of strangeness, a piece of curiosity and sometimes, a trigger for contempt. The misogyny existing in the world distances me from believing in me. While some sections formulate ideas of sub-oriental and exotic fantasies, some would try desperately to figure out my existence using theory, old beliefs, superstitious ambiguity and the rest, through the sexiness of political love. Many times, I also find myself engaging with the understanding of these believes whenever I aspire to weave an understanding of the relationships that I have with people and how I interact with certain physical spaces here. India is a country of beliefs, multiple religions, cultures and hypothetical norms. The dichotomy in this lies, where at one side its diversity in culture is praised throughout the world on the other there still exists some soul graved beliefs which stands gothic in the first world beliefs as well as in the educated section of the society.
One of such gothic belief that caught my attention was treating menstruation as dirty and treating women or girl while chumming as impure. Bleeding during periods is a blooming process girls go through the moment they hit puberty age to menopause. The time and the process is something one never decides or chooses. It’s a natural process, so why make it a difficult shameful cult for women. India is a country of contrast, having extreme wealthy and poverty ridden families staying together in the midst of gender disparities and choking patriarchy. Decades after decades the Indian society is following the same old patriarchal beliefs that both scientifically and democratically shall not exist. It has enrooted through age old customs and superstitions.
This process of continuous shame from decades circling menstruation also has forced girls to opt out of school once they start to chum, differently affecting the growth of female literacy in India. Of the millions adolescent girls, many attend schools, with poor MHM practices and cultural taboos. In rural India, most of the girls have highlighted the chief reason behind leaving the school is menstruation. Many as of them said they do not go to school while menstruating as there is a lack of basic clean and affordable absorbents.
Source: Captured by the Author
The web surrounding menstruation that can be captured around the world, but it’s especially more prevalent in Indian society. I believe at least the educated mass will node to the fact that the menstrual cycles is a naturally occurring process to a women’s body. Still even many of us follow restrictions during periods. The freedom of women continues to be the slave of age old practices and be in the hands of the discourse of dominant patriarchy.
Many few people across the world have acknowledged that Periods is a naturally occurring phenomenon. With the evolution of these norms & cultures, there has not been yet any remarkable progress in the status of women and attitude of the people towards periods. Henceforth the taboos leaves us with the questions like what effects does this taboos have to the personal development of women?
In one research paper, Janet Chawla writes and quotes a historian:
“According to N.N Bhattacharya in different part of India there is a notion of menstruating goddesses. Where in Punjab she is believed to be Dharti Ma (Mother Earth) who sleeps for a week once in a month, in some parts of deccan India after ‘navaratras’ the goddess temples were closed from the tenth to the ‘poornima’ (full moon day)for her resting. Until the first shower of monsoon after hot weather in Malabar region, Mother Earth was believed to rest. In Kamakhya Temple till date and also in some parts of Orissa the ritual of worshipping menstruating goddesses are practiced and followed by many as an important
Source: Captured by the Author
In many celebrated cultures, menstruation was seen as a natural boon and many a times if a girl menstruates for the first time, it would be celebrated. But again the irony lies to the fact that it is been seen as a boon for reproduction as if it’s the only goal of women’s life.
With the rise of concern towards the health issues by many organizations, to poor MHM, people have stood up with different, artistic and sustainable solutions. Believing there is an immediate need of spaces for girls/women where they feel free, comfortable and unashamed about their periods. Menstruation friendly school campuses are a must and education to both them and women is an urgent requirement. Even the PM in concern to MHM introduced Nirmal Bharat Yojna, to bring in change in the society and the way we should tackle the problem related to address MHM issues. The yojna was drawn under the aegis of the Swachh Bharat Mission and National Guidelines for Menstrual Hygiene Management was officially promulgated.
Henceforth, one and all who is raising awareness across India have got bit pushed up with the release of “PadMan”, a film in which a mainstream cinemas action hero uses a pad to fight discrimination women goes through during their periods. Moreover, there are ample of focused initiatives on the lack of knowledge and access to absorbent supplies & MHM related information. Various artists are creating funny write-ups, stigma-eradicating cartoons, poets are writing against the myths, organizations are proposing bike rides to rally around the eradication of myths and taboos, online campaigns are emerging voice to break the silence towards the issue, women are confidently standing to declare that they all are “happy to bleed,” and employees are allowed period leaves after the menstruation proposed bill by MP Ninong in 2017.
But in my opinion to make it large a movement should be launched by the Indian government, with the scheme of distributing free napkins, requires to launch a channelized nation-wide information and awareness program, reaching every corner of the country and spreading awareness and educate the mass largely girls and women about good MHM practices.
Taboos and wrong practices around chums and related ordeal has started to be seen as a danger to women’s lives and their rights to basic health needs and many are emerging and coming forward, wiling to break the silence. The roots of patriarchy have to be uprooted to eradicate the discrimination prevailing in our societies since primitive times. The perception needs to changed and so thus we as a society and an organization as a single unit need to unite together and work to wash it off from human world.
Do contribute with the ideas that can help to fight this plight of the woman kind.
We seek your views and ideas to inspire women and fight against this ordeal of ignorance towards MHM. You can write to the below mentioned address and tell us how the plague of patriarchal age old beliefs towards Menstruation can be brought out of the box of social taboos, so that the girls and women can speak fearlessly about it and help us to develop our strategy to eradicate this problem.
You can reach out on firstname.lastname@example.org. (P.S. Confidentiality would be ensured if you ask for it).
– Neha Jaiswal
Invision Communications& PVT. LTD
Nirmal Bharat Yojna- Planned initiative by the government towards MHM under Swatch Bharat Mission